Apache Hadoop Foundation Course - HDFS Features

In the previous session, I introduced you to Hadoop and talked about some history. We learned about three core components of Hadoop.

  1. Hadoop distributed files (HDFS)
  2. Map Reduce framework
  3. YARN

I intend to cover all of these in detail. So, let’s start with the first one.

What is HDFS?

The H stands for Hadoop and DFS is distributed file system. If you have been using computers, you already know the meaning of filesystem. So, let me ask you a simple question. What can you do with a Filesystem? You know the answer.Right?
Filesystem allows you to create directories and files. Then, you can perform some operations on them like copying them from one location to another location, rename them, move them, or delete them. There are many other services that a filesystem supports.
HDFS is also a filesystem. So, the core purpose of HDFS is to provide you file management services. All that you want to do with HDFS is to create some directories and store your data in files. That’s it.

Why HDFS is Great?

You might be wondering, if it is just a filesystem, then why is it so popular? What was the big thing that Google published in their paper? Why people build a new file system when we already had so many of them? I mean, every operating system comes with a default filesystem.
Well, Hadoop is not an ordinary filesystem. The creators of Hadoop designed it with some unique capabilities and features that make it unique.
So, what are those features? In this video, I will quickly touch base upon following features that make HDFS a powerful and unique filesystem.

  1. Distributed
  2. Scalable
  3. Cost-effective
  4. Fault-tolerant
  5. High throughput

Horizontal Scaling vs Vertical Scaling

What does that mean? And why do we need them? Let’s try to understand that.
If your data grows more massive than the storage capacity of your computer, how would you store it?
Well, if I filled my disk, I will buy a new one of higher capacity. If I have an extra slot, I will add another drive to my computer.
That’s a reasonable answer. This approach is known as vertical scaling. So, when you are scaling the capacity of a single system, we call it vertical scaling.
Most of the enterprises were taking the same approach. This method worked for years. But think of a search engine crawler. The job of a search engine crawler is to read the internet and save it. You buy the most massive available system in the market, and the crawler fills it in less than a year. Now you are dependent on the hardware manufacturers to make a bigger machine. Big data smashes all your capacity planning.
To handle an internet-scale of data, we need to take an approach that is similar to the web itself. The network approach. The solution is simple. Instead of relying on a single giant machine, use a network of several smaller devices. When you consume the combined storage capacity of your network, buy few more cheap computers and add them to the cluster. This approach is called horizontal scaling. The idea is fantastic. But to make it workable, we need a software that combines the storage capacity of the entire network into a single unit. As a user, we just wanted to look at it as a single large disk.

HDFS is a distributed file system

We needed a network-based filesystem. The HDFS is precisely that. A network-based filesystem or a distributed filesystem. You can create a file of 100 TB using HDFS, and you don’t have to care about how HDFS is storing that data on individual computers in the network. The entire storage capacity of the infrastructure is just like a single disk, and we use it as we are using a single computer.
If you understand this idea, all other HDFS features are straightforward.

HDFS is Scalable

It is scalable. I already explained that. When you need more storage, buy some more computers and add them to the network. So HDFS is horizontally scalable. You will never run out of space.

HDFS is cost effective

It is cost effective because you can start as small as a single computer and then scale it as and when you need more capacity. One more important feature is that you don’t need to buy high-end expensive server machines. You can get the reasonable ones. People call it commodity hardware. They are affordable and readily available PC grade systems.

HDFS is fault tolerant

The next is fault tolerance. So, when you create a network using hundreds of commodity machines, it is likely that something breaks every month or maybe every week. Some computer crashes, or a network switch fails, or a disk fails. Anything can happen. HDFS is capable of tolerating such failures. So even if a drive crashes or a computer breaks, your HDFS system will be able to work without any problem. Your system will be functioning, and you won’t lose your data. As an end user, you may not even realize that there is some fault behind the HDFS. We will learn more details about how HDFS achieves all of this in upcoming sessions.

HDFS offers high throughput

The last one is high throughput. If you have been using data systems, you may have already heard these two terms.

  1. Latency
  2. Throughput

Latency is the time to get the first record. The latency is very critical for interactive systems where a user clicked a button and waiting to get the response back.
Throughput is different. Throughput is the number of records processed per unit of time. So, if your goal is to handle a large volume of data, your focus should be to get the highest throughput rather than lowest latency.
The focus of HDFS is to maximize the throughput. It was a key design goal of HDFS. And probably that's why Hadoop is not an excellent choice for interactive requirements because it doesn’t offer you the best possible latency. It gives you an excellent throughput and hence minimizes the total time to process your large data set.
Great! In this session, I tried to answer following questions.

  1. What is HDFS?
  2. What can we do with HDFS?
  3. What are the distinctive features of HDFS?

I hope you can answer these questions.
Thank you for watching Learning Journal. Keep learning and keep growing.

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